Belliard hurt the calf while taking ground balls before Friday's game against the Orioles. Before Monday's game, Belliard said the injury was getting better.
"It's still sore right now, but I'm working on it," Belliard said. "I'm going to take batting practice and do a little running. I'm going to go over there and be with my teammates. Right now, I'm kind of hurt. We'll take it day-by-day."
After talking to reporters, Belliard did a running drill and reaggravated the injury. There is no timetable as to when he will return.
Belliard, 33, is hitting .194 with two home runs and nine RBIs in 26 games with the Nationals this season. This marks just the third time in his career he has been placed on the DL.
Schroder, 29, returns to the Nationals for his third stint this season. He has a 2.25 ERA in three games with Washington and 3-2 with a 3.45 ERA in 12 games with Columbus. Schroder has recorded 25 strikeouts in 15 2/3 innings in Triple-A.
Bill Ladson is a reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.